Office building and Creative and innovative center Ložionica, Belgrade, Serbia

Dajana Goda
STU in Bratislava - Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Architecture

Idea projektu

Project goal was the restoration of the heritage-protected building of the former locomotive depot (shed) named Ložionica into a creative and cultural center, the restoration of the surrounding region, which includes a railway turntable and a water tower, and the design of an new administrative building for eGovernment. The territory is located in Belgrade, next to the Gazela highway bridge near the Sava river coast.
The main problem in the area is traffic noise and finding a way to integrate the new administrative building into the existing industrial environment of the former locomotive depot.
The design consists in optimizing the shape of the administrative building, which responds to the highway, the residential building and the semi-circular floor plan shape of the depot. In the immediate proximity of the highway, the building is single-track. Moving away from the highway, the building quickly turns into a two-track, and at the end we reach a three-track layout. In this way, better internal conditions for employees as well as a more pleasant public space in the center of the territory are created. On the other side, depot has returned its original form, and its surroundings still evoke the former operation of the railway with hints of railway tracks in the form of walkways. We are trying to revive the gloomy spirit of Belgrade and its critical polluted air with green areas, a terrace and a roof.
As a result, neglected and ruined industrial area is given a new life while preserving the old spirit. An attractive environment is created with many different functional uses, both interior and exterior.

Popis projektu

The building of the former depot will be used as a cultural and innovative center. The operation is adapted to its unconventional semicircular shape. The original building is one-story, with the addition of light internal constructions, the interior has a two-story character. The layout follows its internal support system in the transverse direction. The main entrances are from the south side, oriented to the center of the area. It is possible to pass from the front to the back of the area through the cross passage of the depot. The restaurant's kitchen is supplied from the eastern part. The main south-eastern facade is preserved in fully. And from the south-western part it is possible to exit to the exterior with seating. After the demolition of the last 7 places of the tract, only the front walls of the facade remained. This space is used as a observation place by adding a steel structure to the entire area. The routes of the removed tracks leading to the turntable, as well as the tracks that passed through the territory in the form of sideways, have been preserved. They represent industrial heritage of Belgarde. Exterior shading sheets also ensure spending time outdoors on sunny days. The turntable is designed as a small amphitheater with a pond, and the bridge that made it possible to cross the turntable has also been restored. In the outdoor space there are also benches for sitting and parking bicycles, as well as a playground for children. The water tower is used as a gallery.
The floor plan shape of the administrative building results from the limiting elements of the boundaries of the territory. From the south side, the building responds to the Mostar loop, to the east it responds to a newly built apartment building, and to the north it responds to the semi-circular shape of the depot. The accent on the entrance and exhibition space is achieved by the raised office space on columns. The main entrance is oriented to the north, facing the main facade of the depot. It is possible to pass from the subway station to the center of events in the area through a passage. The building has five floors and the entrance area is on first two floors. The terrace and roof are intended for outdoor activities and as a relaxation area. As a material solution, visual concrete is chosen, evoking the Brutalist historical buildings of Belgrade.
The entire area is covered with greenery. This public space is a place of meeting, contact, communication and recreation. It positively affects the psychophysical health of people and increases the social dimension of the city. Greenery has a significant positive role in regulating air quality and temperature, mitigating climatic extremes in summer, as well as reducing noise.

Technické informace

The depot building is a reinforced concrete column system with infill brickwork. The carrier system is unidirectional. The roof is made of reinforced concrete plates with a metal covering. The administrative building is made up of a combination of reinforced concrete and masonry. The supporting system is also unidirectional columnar, semicircular. The lower entrance part is also one-way with larger span distances and pre-tensioned ceilings. Roofs are green extensive and semi-extensive. The BKT system will be used for heating the building. The pipes are placed above the reinforcement of the reinforced concrete slab. For this reason, all horizontal supporting structures are designed thicker than the statically required. The recommended spacing when laying is 10-15 cm. The BKT system will also be used for cold storage. The cooling liquid circulates in the lower part of the concrete ceilings. The principle of adjusting the temperature of the concrete core is based on the accumulation of energy in the concrete structure of the building.
Due to the occurrence of underground water, reversible heat pumps based on the water-water principle will be placed in the building. The heat pumps will be located in the basement. Solar panels will be the source of heat. In the summer, due to high temperatures, the energy will be stored in batteries. The office building is mainly oriented to the west and east. Due to the greater glare of the south-western part, the window openings are smaller. The north-eastern part is designed as a glazed light perimeter shell due to the shorter time of eclipse. The windows are equipped with fabric blinds, mains powered with a solar sensor, which ensures the maximum comfort of the indoor climate.

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