The idea of this project started with the thought of using an Architectural Design Theme as: “Bionic Architecture” where we would be able to rely on it and use it on one of the main factor on todays globalization, economy as transportation and terminals that will solve problems in our capital city, Prishtina.
Using Bionic principles design (especially Bau-Bionic), thinking to internal and external relations and structure in nature, we were able to reach our goals and objectives of creating an innovative, sustainable, useful and authentic Intermodal Grand Terminal in Prishtina, Kosovo.
Integrating the bionic/organic phenomenon to our project using the architectural design, creating an Intermodal terminal in Prishtina. On our project we touched all the essential functions needed for a Terminal (Bus Station, Train station and Retail space modules), using materials that are human-friendly to create more comfort spaces. The building’s architectural design formally and philosophically can be extended out into the community, welcoming people of all ages and backgrounds through its suitable design in interior and exterior/landscape . Utilizing innovative systems for better space quality, exploring design solutions that contains qualities and conditions for human and environment sustainability. The design is made to contribute harmoniously with nature and the site, providing the best experiences for the users.
MASTER PLAN and INFRASTRUCTURE:
The composition and configuration of the master plan is derived from context constrains, where we have in fact managed to create an Exhibition Art Gallery first, with an organic extension in the form of a circle seen from top view (masterplan) which has flowed as a result of context/terrain influences.
With the radial configuration of the Art Gallery-which we refer to as the Tectonic System aswell, there comes the generation of structural axes or of the whole structural system, which also helped us generating the shape of the building.
A great impact on the master plan is the Urban Planning aswell, always including a landscape design without missing the green public spaces.
After analyzing the factual situation of the location, labeling its problems and taking into account documents as: “Urban Development of Prishtina”, “Municipal Development Plan of Prishtina” and “New Regulatory Plan”, we have reached the possibility of solving infrastructure problems of this urban area. We have used the existing main roads by connecting them in the way of circulation and access within the narrow location. In addition to the existing roads which we have preserved but always by treating them- in this project; importance has been given to the connection of the grand terminal with the railway of the city, Prishtina.
The railway is expected to be underground with two side tracks on which passengers can access. It is connected to the existing/actual railway and it departs from the terminal towards airport and towards the city center. In this way, in addition to the road network, we would have a functional railway communication, which would make it easier for people and goods to move/communicate.
The building/terminal is crossed by numerous roads/accesses for people, public transport such as: buses and trains, cars and taxis. Characteristic is the curvy road of buses which crosses the terminal, performing the aesthetic function aswell; through the free facade of the terminal where we could see buses moving, from the inside. This road is also used for parking or stopping of regional buses. The same road is connected to the other ones that lead to the inside of the building, within the platform structure of local buses(almost 30 buses, located at 60degrees) which operate with the "cave system".
TECHNICAL DETAILS/STRUCTURAL SYSTEM/TECTONIC SYSTEM:
Researches in Bionics and especially in Bau-bionic, botany and zoology research, have helped us to create the structural and tectonic system of our project.
The tree like columns used as a structural system have flowed as a result of research on the form and principles of Victoria Amazonica plant, where through it as an initial concept the whole structural system has been created. As for the tectonic system and the envelope of the building, the concept derives from zoology, more specifically from Ploceus nest, the impact of which is best seen in the tectonic structure of the art gallery.
Structural/Tectonic System- Details:
The terminal is divided into four main modules, that work as a whole: 1.Main Module/Hall/Services-Bus+Train Station, 2.Retail Spaces Module, 3.Bus Station/Platforms, 4. Exhibition Art Gallery
1.The structural system of the first part is made of columns which we have referred to as the Tree-like columns.
Primary structure of the columns: Consists of laminated wood or glulam wood with an average height of 18 meters, which carries the loads from top to bottom. Two of the main loads that this column carries are: wood loads themselves or personal loads and enviromental loads.
These columns, in our case, function as a RAM system, where the columns and beams are already connected and form the structural system functioning as a whole. From this column we have 3 types of ways of its implementation in the project, where one of them is: when the laminated wood structure works together with the concrete pillar which in some way wrappes the wooden column, and functioning together they allow the entry of light within the space, which is made possible by the almost transparent roof cover - ETFE too, and also has an aesthetic function, where already in the interior we have created a harmony of materials, in this case of wood and concrete.
The 2 other ways are when these two structures are now split and can function smoothly as partitioned internally.
Secondary structure: Consists of the roof, the aluminum holders or the aluminum elements which hold the ETFE roof cover.
Third Structure: is the bottom where we have the construction which accepts the loads from above and consists of the concrete floor - bearing space with concrete columns, the floor made of reinforced concrete and the concrete columns which simultaneously form the parking structure or underground structure.
2.To keep the radial configuration of the axes and the tree like column itself, we continued with the idea of a tree like column system in the Retail Spaces module aswell, but changing its design to a simpler one, still non-conventional, with a touch of steel. Tree like steel columns with a 30m distance between each other and a minimum/maximum height of 16m/32m, touching the ETFE roof cover.
3.The structural system used at the buses platform, is a structure made of steel with an ETFE roof cover.
4.Tectonic System used at the Exhibition Art Gallery and Building Envelope, is a steel structure inspired by Ploceus Nest.