The relevance of the topic of the project is primarily due to the fact that the question of a person's need for housing will always be. There is a need for both the construction of simple housing and social housing for people who find themselves in various difficult life situations. In addition to the question of who the housing is aimed at, there is a problem of choosing a place for designing an object, in what conditions to design, how many people to count on, and much more. It is imperative to provide the projected object with public, social and commercial functions in order to make the life of future residents as comfortable and autonomous as possible.
When designing an object and the speed of construction, especially in the central busy part of the city. Every extra day, the construction of an object creates excessive noise for surrounding residential buildings, the concentration of dust in the air increases, and overall construction equipment can create difficulties in dense city traffic. The use of modular construction technology allows us to solve the tasks. So the terms of construction from modular steel structures can differ significantly compared to the traditional construction of a brick, wooden or panel house. The advantage is achieved through an optimized frame assembly process and the ability to carry out many jobs in parallel.
While the modules are being produced at the plant, foundation work is already underway at the construction site itself, engineering networks are being carried out. Finished modules are delivered to the construction site, where specialists perform direct installation, after which work is already underway on the installation of enclosing structures, such as frame-sheathing walls.
The entire engineering component and wet processes are carried out by specialists at the stage of module creation, which makes it possible to carry out most of the construction and installation work in the future, even in winter. Thus, the optimized construction process, construction speed and well-established logistics make it possible not only to quickly build objects, but also to use resources wisely, as well as reduce overspending of materials and project financing, which reduces the cost of the total cost of the facility and sometimes makes it more profitable to build from modular structures than from traditional materials.
Due to the speed of construction and the low cost of modular structures, it becomes possible to quickly build not only ordinary residential buildings, but also social housing for large families, refugees, migrants from emergency housing or those who have lost their homes due to natural or man-made disasters.
The design site is located in the city of Tomsk, in the Kirovsky district at the intersection of st. Usova and st. Vershinin.
The area of the projected site is 1.5 ha. The design area has a relatively flat relief with a height difference of 2.3 meters in the northeastern part. Currently, the area is partially fenced and cleared, but there are two wooden houses in a dilapidated state of non-monumental architectural environment.
The status of the territory "ЖИ-2" - "Zone for development of residential buildings of variable number of storeys in historical districts", which limits the permissible number of storeys of the object to 8 floors.
The main principles for choosing a territory for design
was the advantage of several factors:
Developed infrastructure (availability of accessible public
transport, external power supply, water supply, sports
buildings, landscaping, public service enterprises.)
The relevance of the development of the territory in order to provide housing
population, as well as improving the visual condition of historically
important street in the city.
Attractions within walking distance
The general plan of the site for designing a residential building involves zoning the territory to achieve maximum comfort for the residents of the house. On the east and west sides there is a through common passage with access to a common parking lot (20 parking spaces) and a specially allocated stand-alone pocket for servicing garbage containers. An underground parking is located on the projected site, the entrance to it is carried out from the frame in the eastern part of the territory. From the general passage there are two single-lane roads to the house, which are used only by special people. Technology and freight transport. The colonnade on the east façade extends beyond the building plan to the north to demarcate the roadway and the public area. To the west and east there are 2 guest parking lots (10 car parks on each side).
The yard area has both children's (children under 10 years old) and playgrounds intended for general use for residents of the quarter, the main pedestrian transits are 5 meters wide for the passage of fire equipment. On the territory of the yard there are evacuation exits from the underground parking, which include outlets of underground parking communications.
The following items are designed on the territory of the residential complex:
1. A residential complex consisting of several residential blocks-sections, as well as a public area that unites them;
2. Playground for children;
3. Entrance / exit to the underground parking;
4. Emergency exits from the underground parking;
5. Fire-prevention passage to the entrances.
6. Transformer substation;
7. Pocket for maintenance of garbage containers.
The residential complex consists of 4 large residential blocks, three of them are identical with a gable roof 6 floors high, and the fourth block with a flat roof 7 floors high. Residential blocks have a common ground floor that runs perpendicular to each block. It is a public area with social, cultural and commercial premises, as well as with entrance groups to residential sections.
The public part consists of the following departments:
• Entrance groups to residential sections
• Stair and lift unit
• Cultural facilities for residents of the complex
• Social spaces
• Administrative premises
• Commercial premises
On the ground floor of the complex there are 8 entrance nodes for residential sections, the rest are intended for public functions.
The space of the apartments is decided in accordance with the philosophy of modular building constructions. Each apartment, as the living area and rooms increase, is transformed along the border of the modules.
The architectural and artistic image of the residential complex is built on the basis of the features of the modular system of the object, namely, the minimum facade plasticity. The solution of the facade planes is formed by applying a frame grid, along which an array of window blocks is outlined in a checkerboard pattern.
To diversify the visual appearance between the residential blocks from the southern facade, there are 3 colonnades that complement the image of the object, setting a special rhythm for the designed building. Also, another colonnade is located at the western facade and extends beyond the building plan to the northern part of the territory. It is designed to visually delimit the territory of the public zone adjacent to the projected facility and the roadway.
The windows of the living rooms face the south, west and east sides, the windows of the kitchen face north. Each floor of a residential block with an area of 640 sq. m. According to SP 54.13330.2022 for 600 sq.m. buildings up to 9 floors must have at least 1 elevator. Because in one residential block, the floor area during the design came out more than 600 sq. m., it was decided to divide the residential block into two sections and install a stair-lift assembly with a fire escape in each section
The basis for the design was a unified module with dimensions of 6750x2250x3300 (LxWxH) in accordance with the transportation standards GOST 26653-2015 “PREPARATION OF GENERAL CARGO FOR TRANSPORTATION”, permissible dimensions of the transported cargo: length - up to 20 m, width - up to 2.55 m, height - up to 4 m. To develop the building, a typology of modules was required to solve the problems of locating communications, ventilation, attic spaces, etc. Based on this, the minimum number of modules for optimizing the production and assembly of the building was determined in the amount of 4 pieces.
An important aspect is the supply chain. Since there are no suitable products and specialized enterprises for the implementation of such structures in the Tomsk region, the project assumes the transportation of a semi-factory module from the Moscow region, where all the necessary enterprises for the manufacture of module components exist. This assumption is one of the possible options. After manufacturing, the structure is loaded onto vehicles and delivered to the cargo station. Next, the modules are installed on fitting platforms, with which the cargo is transported by rail to Tomsk.
The modules are mounted by a stationary crane on top of each other using the rigging holes. The modules are connected to each other by means of assembly ties (capital) for 4 rods with a support platform for distributing the load on the rod, the connection of adjacent modules by means of an embedded part (angular stiffening rib). All types of installation work on metal welding.
Filling the module on the floor in order to simplify the installation process and reduce the number of "wet" works, a non-removable metal profile formwork is used: a thin-layer screed (91 mm) with a lightweight reinforced rod of glass reinforcement along a profiled sheet (NS 35-1000), filling along the ceiling with sound and heat-insulating materials. The stair-lift assembly is made in a monolith to isolate noise and vibration loads and spread vibrational frequencies along the steel frame.
Enclosing structure - frame sheathing walls
The source of water supply is city networks. Input nodes are located on the basement floor. Central water heating systems are being designed in the building. As a rule, two-pipe schemes with lower wiring of main pipelines are used. Steel radiators and pipelines made of steel water and gas pipes are used as heating devices. Living quarters have natural ventilation. Exhaust systems in bathrooms, kitchen and halls. The ventilation unit passes through a special communication channel built into the communication module; for air intake, it is possible to install auxiliary exhaust shafts on the ceiling. The auxiliary shaft enters the main one, above the ceiling level.
The modules are mounted by a stationary crane on top of each other using the rigging holes. The whole essence of installation is reduced to 4 stages:
1. Construction of the foundation with the installation of bases for 4 rods
2. Installation of 1 row of modules on the bases
3. Installation of gussets and capitals
4. Installing the next row of modules
The foundation with such a constructive scheme was chosen as a monolithic columnar one under a metal column. The foundation is installed as follows:
1. Mark the position of the wells and dig holes of the required depth.
2. A sand and gravel cushion is laid at the bottom. Build formwork. Reinforce the structure with bars and mesh.
3. Prepared wells are poured with concrete grade not lower than M300. Before pouring, geodetic levels and high-altitude signs are installed in the cavity. They serve as indicators of the location of the steel support.
4. Anchor bolts are mounted in the surface of concrete bases for fixing. A metal column is attached to them. They are connected to each other with beams.