At the moment, our world is reconsidering the solution to the problem with the environmental situation, which nature itself has to rely on. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) highlights the natural environmental problems of the Arctic region: climate change and the melting of Arctic ice: pollution of the waters of the northern seas by oil runoff and food compounds, as well as maritime transport, diseases of Arctic animal populations and changes in their habitat, environmental change climate and Arctic melting. The study shows that on average the planet as a whole has warmed by 0.19°C per decade, and the Arctic has warmed 3.8 times faster, by 0.73°C per decade.
Thus, the Arctic is both statistically and in principle an important object of the earth, where many mammals can be traced and a number of bacteria of the early period, gases, etc. are found in the ice. Therefore, a modern, mobile scientific complex was adopted, which will conduct scientific research on the climate and its features in general.
The location of the object was chosen based on the feasibility of placement. There was a choice between land and water surface, but in the end, based on the purpose of the object's existence, it was chosen to locate it in the sea, since the need for underwater research was one of the goals. Further search for the territory on which the object should be located, it was decided to choose the waters near Murmansk, since most of the available territories of the Russian Federation in the Artik were covered with multi-year ice, based on this, the city of Murmansk was chosen. Since Murmansk is one of the main cities in the Arctic, which is owned by the Russian Federation, as well as one of the largest cities.
The main principles for choosing a territory for designing were the presence of several factors:
1. Non-freezing water
2. Wind currents
3. Nearby ports
4. The presence of a large city
The facility is located near Murmansk in the Barents Sea. The Barents Sea occupies the westernmost position among the Arctic seas washing the shores of Russia.
The area of the sea is 1405 thousand km, the average depth is 200 m, so the object is located near the land with a maximum depth of up to 100 meters.
The climate of the sea is polar maritime, the warmest among the shelf seas of the Arctic Ocean. Most of the sea is covered with ice, but ¼ remains uncovered, based on this the site was chosen for the facility.
The bottom topography plays a significant role in the hydrological regime of the Barents Sea. It is heterogeneous: crossed by underwater heights, depressions and trenches, which will provide an excellent number of unknown places for research, coupled with the fact that the sea has good mixing of waters due to which they are saturated with oxygen, gas and nutrients. From the cover of bottom sediments in the southern part of the Barents Sea, sand prevails, in some places - pebbles and crushed stone, in connection with which it was customary to use a powerful monolithic foundation. A very diverse number of fish, plant and animal plankton and benthos, therefore the Barents Sea is an area of intensive fishing.
Periodic tidal currents are superimposed on the system of constant currents, which in the surface layer reach 150 cm / s and, as a rule, exceed the speed of constant currents, which makes it possible to place hydroelectric generators at the base of the object to generate energy. Wind is one of the main problems for the object, which was strongly reflected in the appearance of the object. Near the southern shores, the height of the level rise at high tide reaches 3 and even 6 m, in the north and northeast - 0.5 - 2.0 m, so it was decided to add a system of hydraulic raising of the object above sea level in the object.
The climate of the Barents Sea is influenced by the warm Atlantic Ocean and the cold Arctic Ocean. Frequent intrusions of warm Atlantic cyclones and cold Arctic air determine the great variability of weather conditions. In winter, southwest winds prevail over the sea, in spring and summer - northeast winds. Frequent storms. The average air temperature of the coldest month of March varies from -22 °C on the islands of the Svalbard archipelago to -2 °C in the southwest. The average August temperature is +4…+6 °C in the north, +9 °C in the southwest. Cloudy weather prevails over the sea during the year. The annual rainfall is from 300 mm in the north to 500 mm in the southwest, which also affected the design features of the project and the use of precipitation.
The object is located in the middle of the Motovsky Bay near Murmansk, the location was chosen based on scientific research that should be carried out inside the complex, since there are already quite a large number of complexes built on land, so the option of using the sea space was considered. The distance from the land was taken at 25 km, in order to land the object at a depth of 40-50 m, to conduct research on the seabed and its environs. The main idea of the object is to expand the scientific object by joining additional modules.
The object consists of the main module, which works as the main complex, to which additional modules are docked, which develop the concept of object mobility. Installation takes place on a concrete base, which is an image of a “chair leg”.
The general plan shows the unloading platform from the 1st floor, from which evacuation from the facility takes place, as well as unloading from small ships. The main function of unloading is carried out by a sliding platform located above the platform of the 1st floor. This is a retractable design for larger vessels. Additional modules allow you to expand the number of residents, their comfort and the amount of scientific research.
At the heart of the space-planning decision, first of all, was the shape of the object, because due to severe weather conditions it was necessary to develop a facade system that could withstand all the natural loads that would be applied to it daily, as well as withstand its own weight and functioning. The base shell of the main module is installed on a metal frame assembled from titanium, which in turn is installed on columns with a section of 500x500 mm, which are also assembled from titanium. Titanium was chosen as the main material of the entire complex, because it is light, durable and resistant to corrosion. In turn, it also withstands loads 3 times higher than carbon fiber, which was finally chosen as the main material of the object. Behind the titanium in the 2nd place is reinforced concrete, from which the “leg” is actually assembled, on which the object is located.
On top of the metal frame, titanium facade elements are installed, which are like a thermos shell. The object is lined with titanium plates having the property of a kinetic facade. The kinetic facade of the object is powered by energy, which allows you to control each plate. The facade system was used according to the developments of the University of Stuttgart, Germany. This system allows the plates to work on the accumulation of energy, through a slight deformation, after which it returns the energy back to the facade. The transitions between the buildings are made of, they, in turn, unite the main building and additional blocks. In the center of the main modules there is a hole 18x18 meters wide, on which a lantern made of mesh ribbed elements is installed, which gives it greater rigidity and strength, there is a gutter between the lantern and the shell, into which water and snow flow, which in turn melted on the roof, after which sent to the facility's basement where it is safely processed into filtered water and used to aid the operation of the facility.
The shell has porthole windows, the design of the windows does not allow water or other unfavorable elements to get inside.
Solar panels are also installed on the roof to store energy and transfer it to the facility.
On the unloading side, the shell has openings for the installation of sliding gates. And so the installation of a sliding bridge system, on which unloading will take place. Width 20x20 meters. The unloading width on the 1st floor is 10x10 meters.
The monolithic foundation on which the object stands has a cylindrical shape with a section of 5x5 meters at the base. This type of construction was chosen on the basis that the object can use geothermal energy to provide itself with energy. Such a move involves the use of the object in different parts of the Arctic. The foundation petals have an arched shape to distribute loads, with a cross section of 1000 mm wide. Depth of laying 40-100 meters. In this case, a place at 40 meters depth was chosen. A hole is dug at the base to lay the foundation. At the top point there are holes for the installation of hydroelectric generators, for the same function of accumulating natural and clean energy. The foundation uses a hydraulic system to push the object 2-3000 mm in case of water inflows.
Additional modules are also lined with titanium and have a storage function. The difference in the work of the plates, on the main module, the plates open rectangularly, on the additional ones they are compressed.
Each module has its own function, both planning and volumetric:
The triangular module has its own shape, based on wind loads that should be distributed evenly and fade away. The block is the most compact of all, compactness is explained by the fact that this block is used for greenhouses in which scientists and a team of workers can grow vegetables, fruits and herbs.
The rectangular module has its own shape based on wind loads and the amount of area that is needed. This module is residential, in which there are additional living rooms, as well as a couple of rooms for general work.
The hexagonal module has its own shape based on wind loads, since the module is the largest of the additional ones and must withstand more severe wind loads, there is a hole in the center through which submersibles and scuba divers dive.
The dimensions of the object are 62000x62000 mm. The dimensions of the complex are adjusted based on the rationality of the use of the area. In the center of each floor there is a hole 20000x20000 mm, this space is allocated for a garden in which people can spend their free time, gather for holidays, or just relax, residential cells start from the 2nd floor and overlook the central space, thus we create the appearance of a familiar life , and we try to protect people from the depressiveness of the surrounding wasteland and water around. Based on the research of scientists from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, there is evidence that the impact of the polar environment affects the brain of people, depressive states, hallucinations, the consequences of spending people at stations for a long time, as well as a slight decrease in the size of the human brain. Based on the research data, it was especially important to create spaces for people in which they can relax and unwind.
Therefore, an 18-meter dome is located in the center of the object, which gives illumination to the entire space.
The facility also has recreation rooms, gyms, libraries for a comfortable stay for staff and scientists.
Description of planning solutions:
It is worth initially talking about the elements that will be static and unchanged on all floors. In the corners of the main complex there are elevator units 6000x4000mm, with main ventilation 3000x1000mm for the distribution of all energy, water, heat. Nearby are toilets and baths 4000x7000mm. The angular arrangement of these elements allows you to get evenly from each part of the complex. In the center is a garden 20000x20000mm.
All rooms are connected by a central corridor 2000mm wide. Also, fixed arrangements have exits to additional blocks, 2000 mm wide. The stairs are located in the central part, next to the garden, the width of the march is 1500mm. In front of the garden there are resting places 7000x18000mm.
In additional blocks, fixed places have stairs and ventilation.
On the 1st floor, there are the main warehouse and industrial premises, with access to the outside and evacuation. Warehouse area 120 m2, warehouses store equipment and items that can be stored for a long time, for specialized things requiring special storage, other warehouses are provided. In the eastern part there is temporary storage and storage of lifeboats - 224 m2. In the western part of the building there is a kitchen for hot and cold, as well as storage rooms - 250 m2.
The residential block on the 1st floor has rooms, a couple of scientific rooms and technical rooms with a staircase. The size of the rooms is 4000x5000mm. The area of the rooms is 21 m2. Ventilation channels 300x900mm.
The greenhouse block on the 1st floor has a room for the installation of equipment for terariums, and a couple of rooms for storing equipment and seeds. The room for terrariums has dimensions of 13000x10000mm, area - 65 m2. Storage space 25m2.
The scientific block on the 1st floor has rooms for scientific research, recreation, rooms for rest and collection of divers, storage of research and toilets. In the center there is an opening with dimensions of 8000x8000mm for diving. Research rooms have an area of 60 m2. Toilets - 24 m2. Data storage - 30 m2. Divers room - 35 m2. There are also emergency exits and the possibility of docking more blocks.
On the 2nd floor, there are public premises, as well as the main living rooms for people - 16-21 m2. In the western part of the complex there is a dining room, where employees, taking food from the 1st floor, go up in an elevator and get into a room where they can eat - 185 m2. Nearby is a cafe - 65 m2. In the southern part there are rooms for rest of workers - 180 m2. In the East, the library is 60 m2. and an assembly hall - 127 m2. In the south, a youth center - 130 m2. and a sports hall - 130 m2. 2nd floor serves for general meetings, recreation
and staff training, as well as for tour demonstrations.
The greenhouse block on the 2nd floor has a room for the installation of equipment for terariums, and a room for storing equipment and seeds. The room for terariums has an area of 55 m2. Storage space 10 m2.
The residential block on the 2nd floor has rooms, a couple of scientific rooms and technical rooms with a staircase. The size of the rooms is 4000x5000mm. The area of the rooms is 21 m2. Ventilation channels 300x900mm.
The science block on the 2nd floor has rooms for scientific research, recreation, storage, a meeting room and toilets. Research rooms have an area of 45 m2. Toilets - 15 m2. Data storage - 20 m2. Meeting room - 30 m2. There are also emergency exits and the possibility of docking more blocks.
On the 3rd floor, there are scientific premises, as well as the main living rooms for people - 16-21 m2. The entire floor is given over to scientific
research. Area - 50 m2. A large research and experimental room in the eastern part of the complex - 110 m2. Also nearby is a medical office - 50 m2.
Space-planning solutions are based on the developments of existing scientific complexes both in the Arctic and Antarctica.
When designing the complex, emphasis was placed on the simplicity of form, but also the expressiveness of the object. The main task was to fit into the fosmihedral form such a vast content. The octagonal shape, as mentioned above, was chosen based on the functionality of the object, as well as windproof loads.
In turn, this form looks sophisticated and expressive, despite the dimensions of the entire object.
Titanium plates give the object an expressive image and set not only functionality but also a transforming facade. Dark color is chosen as a material that absorbs heat more, but in terms of aesthetic considerations, there are very few complexes with a dark appearance, which gives the object a memorable image. Round lantern on the roof, chosen because of the more stable construction, but also aesthetically better appearance. Glow inside the object sets a variety of appearance of the complex.
Additional blocks are also made of smooth and soft shapes, for better air resistance, but also for a single image with the complex, silver titanium coating is chosen as a distinctive feature of the difference between the main and additional complexes.
The grid of panels of the main complex is assembled from rectangular plates, which is quite simple, but at the same time reveals the image of the object in an interesting way. On the blocks, a triangular grid is used, which is revealed by the method of compression and disclosure, for a difference with the main complex.
Solar panels are installed under the mesh on the roof to hide them from the aggressive environment and high rainfall.
The transitions between the complexes are oval in shape, which gives them a more stable position and protection from the wind. The image is inspired from transitions in modern trains and spaceships.
The interior is made of wood, which gives the property a more comfortable and soothing feel inside. As well as greenery in the center of the object. Ceilings from 2700-4000 mm, for a comfortable stay inside.
According to SP 2.1.3678-20 "Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the operation of premises, buildings, structures, equipment and vehicles, as well as the conditions of activity of business entities selling goods, performing work or providing services", the norms establish the following air temperature during the cold period time: living rooms - 18-24 ° С; kitchen - 18-26 ° С; toilet - 18-26 ° C; bathroom, combined bathroom - 18-26 ° С; corridors - 16-22 °С; vestibule, stairwell - 14-20 °С; pantries - 12-22 ° С. In scientific laboratories, the temperature should be lower - 15-17 °C. Each floor is equipped with baths for premature showering and steaming.
Insolation in the building is provided mainly due to internal artificial light, because due to the location of the object closer to the north, the sun's rays cannot penetrate deep into the object. Insolation of the main landscaping occurs through a glass dome, and this solution also allows insolation of living quarters inside.
Ceiling heights from 2.700-4500 mm.
The facility is ventilated on a permanent basis, thanks to the location of the technical floors, which allow you to arrange all communications for air filtration and purification, as well as the use of fresh air from the street.
Chemicals and equipment are transported using an elevator, with 2 elevators in each corner, in case any dangerous goods are being transported. Toilets are located right next to it.
The use of walls made of CLT materials provides high noise protection.
Laboratories are located on a separate floor, and laboratories with experiments have additional vestibules for changing staff clothes into protective suits.
The complex provides rooms with ice chambers for food storage and water filtration in the facility takes place on an ongoing basis.
The central landscaping is fenced off from the 1st floor and the rest, you can get to it only through the 1st floor.
Object: Research complex in the Arctic.
Design site: Barents Sea, Motovsky Bay (Murmansk).
Justification of the decision of the land plot organization plan
When designing and locating the object, there was no emphasis on the location of the object in space, since this station is located in the northern part of the planet, the sun's rays do not have much access to the bowels of the object, so the main emphasis in insolation is on internal artificial lighting and living quarters are located in the center object. A lantern is located above them, through which the sun's rays can enter the object. Therefore, the building has an octagonal shape and, depending on the desire of the customer, the building can be arranged as the place allows. Each module docks into any docking hole of the main complex. In residential blocks, emphasis has already been placed on the opposite arrangement of rooms to each other, which allows receiving insolation.
Justification and choice of design scheme
The structural scheme of the building is a frame, mixed type, since due to the shape of the building, the crossbars can be laid out both longitudinally and transversely. The choice of this scheme is fully justified by the fact that the object can be located in different parts of the Murmansk region and near the lying territory. Therefore, the design scheme should be as mobile as possible so that it can be quickly erected on site. Since during the winter period, the temperature drops and the construction of the main frame becomes a time-consuming task.
An example of the construction of a building of this type
Therefore, the structural scheme should be designed so that it can be erected in the shortest possible time, in ideal conditions 2-3 months. The entire frame is delivered to the design site using shipping boats, tankers, icebreakers and any equipment capable of withstanding the environment. The frame material is titanium, as it can withstand high loads, in turn, it is almost 3 times higher than carbon fiber.
The central complex is installed on a monolithic platform. The image and choice of design was selected based on existing oil rigs and stations, which are mostly installed on a monolithic base. Since the object must be laid deeper than 40 meters, which does not allow the use of metal, a monolith is used. The monolithic structure is hollow inside, has a diameter of 10000mm, for laying pipes in the center for generating geothermal energy. Monolithic walls are installed on 4 sides of the structure to support the object, width - 1000mm.
Holes for the installation of hydro generators are made in each wall for generating energy, the diameter is 1000 mm.
The outer walls of the building are separate vacuum blocks that are made of titanium and represent a thermos system for keeping heat inside. The material from which the blocks are made is titanium. Titanium does not corrode. The width of the overall thickness of the shell is 900 mm. 300 mm is allocated inside the vacuum space, which is a heater. The creation of such an unusual wall system is due to security measures in case of flooding or a hole in the shell.
Plywood - 30 mm
Air gap - 30 mm
Vapor barrier membrane - 0.25 mm
Steel - 300 mm
Expanded polystyrene boards (up to 10 kg/m³) – 300 mm
Steel - 300 mm
Hydro-windproof membrane - 0.4 mm
Kinetic facade system - 500mm
Some materials are replaced with similar ones, like steel and styrofoam, which are similar to the properties of titanium and vacuum.
Region - Murmansk region
Locality - Murmansk
Type of premises - Public
Construction type - Exterior walls
Humidity inside - % 40
Temperature inside - °С 21
Number of degree days of the heating period (GSOP) - ° С day 6633.9
The temperature of a cold five-day period with security - 0.92 -28
Duration of the heating period - 273
The average air temperature of the heating period is -3.3
Relative humidity of the coldest month 84
Heat transfer coefficient of the outer surface α(ext) 23
Heat transfer coefficient of the inner surface α(int) 8.7
Normalized temperature difference -Δt(n) 4.5
Thermal resistance (m²•˚С)/W
The base value of elemental requirements [R4] is 3.19
Heat transfer resistance of the building envelope [R1] - 5.18
Sanitary and hygienic requirements [R2] - 1.25
Normalized value of element-by-element requirements [R3] - 2.01
Water vapor resistance (m²*h*Pa)/mg
Resistance to vapor permeation from the inner surface of the structure to the plane of maximum moisture [Rp] - 5.1
Inadmissibility of moisture accumulation in the enclosing structure for the year of operation [Rp1] -45103.44
Moisture limitation in the enclosing structure for the period with negative average monthly outdoor temperatures [Rp2] -0.04
Heat loss Wh
Heat loss after 1 m² in 1 hour at the temperature of the coldest five-day period kW / h - 9.46
Heat loss through 1 m² for the heating season kWh - 30736.22
The project uses ceilings installed on metal crossbars, the ceilings themselves are assembled from wooden CLT panels. The selection of these panels was made based on their properties. The panels have excellent physical and mechanical properties, have good thermal insulation properties and can withstand heavy loads without shrinkage and deformation. Products have high fire resistance. The material is environmentally friendly. These ceilings are easy to erect, since the CLT panel arrives already assembled and all that remains is to fix it on the crossbar.
The design solution uses a 300 mm slab mounted on 400 mm crossbars.
The roof has the same properties as the outer wall, as it is all one-piece construction, the only exception is that solar panels 2000x1000 mm are installed on the roof for energy production.
Also on the roof is a dome and drainage of water and snow. Snow reaches the dome, in front of which a warm roof system is installed, melts and is sent to water trays, after which it is sent through drainpipes to the basement of the complex, where it is processed into clean water. With rain water the same scheme.
In the corners of the main complex there are elevator units 6000x4000mm, with main ventilation 3000x1000mm for the distribution of all energy, water, heat. The stairs are located in the central part, next to the garden, the width of the march is 1500mm. Elevator nodes serve for the movement of personnel, but also for the movement of equipment from warehouses.
Windows – Ship Aluminum Sliding Window, This is a type of sliding window, and it is suitable for the wheelhouse and superstructure above the freeboard deck of various ships. Two shapes are provided: a square angel and a round angel. Made of aluminum, color and size can be customized according to customers' requirements. Quality is determined by the CB/T3765-1996 standard. Choose from IACS certifications such as CCS, NK, BV, DNV.GL, LR, ABS, RINA, IRS, RMRS, etc.
Doors - wooden, double-leaf, 2200 mm high, 1200 to 2000 mm wide. Texture is wood. Interior doors - single-leaf, wooden 2200 mm high, 700 mm wide.
Gates - Suspended (retractable) garage doors with one leaf 3000x5000mm.
The interior decoration of the premises is made mainly of wood for the relaxation of the workers inside and a safer perception of the environment. The wood is treated for better fire resistance. Suspended ceilings also made of wood or metal slats for a more modern setting. In the rest room, the floor is made of a different type of board than the rest of the building. In scientific rooms, the floor is made of natural stone, to prevent fire or ingress of liquids that can corrode the floors. The interior is dominated by light wood and glass. Which gives the effect of more space around and tranquility.
Structural solution of landscaping elements
In the center of the facility is located landscaping, which consists mostly of seating, the possibility of growing plants, as well as play activities.
Improvement was made, taking into account the location of trees and pedestrian paths. Landscaping should not interfere with people in terms of movement and should not be too uniform, as well as places of rest, benches, seats and other places where you can take a break from work. In the center, pergolas are installed that can be folded and unfolded back if necessary - 6000x3000mm.
This space provides people with a place to relax, as well as gathers everyone in 1 place to celebrate festive events.
Fire safety measures
In the event of a fire, fire extinguishers are located in the elevator rooms on each floor, and emergency exits from the complex are provided on the 1st and second floors, which are not only docking blocks, but also the ability to quickly leave the building; rooms with folding boats have been created in the corners of these rooms . Fire extinguishing systems are installed in the technical floors of the complex. Based on the data provided by SP 1.13130.2020, the distance between the stairs was taken at 25m, for the fastest possible evacuation of people from the floors. On the 1st floor there is a room with storage of lifeboats, which will also facilitate evacuation routes, along with a communication point through which you can send an SOS signal. width from 1500 mm. Stairs are made of metal of the 1st type. Each docking module is also fenced with vestibules to prevent the spread of smoke throughout the facility. At the base of the complex, balloons with inflatable ladders were added, which, in the event of a fire, can be opened and jumped onto them, for further transition to lifeboats. km from the coast, evacuation may take 1-2 hours.
The complexes are equipped with strong exhaust and ventilation through technical floors and windows. Based on the purpose of the building, fire resistance category B1 II degree was assigned, since research and study of extracted materials will be carried out in the building. II degree as the building has a metal frame.
Technical and economic indicators
1. The total area of the complex is 5161 m2
2. Area of the main complex - 3165 m2
3. Residential block area - 380 m2
4. The area of the scientific block - 940 m2
5. Greenhouse area - 256 m2
6. Construction volume of the main complex - 84200 m3
7. Construction volume of the residential block - 4900 m3
8. Construction volume of the scientific block - 24548 m3
9. Construction volume of the greenhouse - 5600 m3
10. Residential area of the main complex - 1120 m2
11. The area of laboratories of the main complex - 840 m2
12. The area of laboratories of the additional block - 488 m2
13. Area of the 1st floor - 4100 m2
14. Area 2 floors - 3800 m2
15. Area of the 3rd floor - 2400 m2
16. Landscaping area - 360 m2
17. Number of additional blocks - 4
18. Number of staff - 100 people
19. Number of scientists - 70 people
20. Number of workers - 30 people
The cost of a full range of works on the construction of a research complex in the Arctic amounted to 1,558,515 thousand rubles.
Thus, the cost of construction per 1 m2 in the research complex in the Arctic amounted to 153.629 thousand rubles.
The cost of the object may be far from the real one, since it is not possible to carry out a full calculation of the object, since the elements used in the object and the materials do not have data in the NCS. Also, the miscalculation does not have data on the transportation of cargo to the design site, which will also greatly affect the cost of the complex, because the complex is located in the middle of the water.
An analogue of this facility, which currently exists, is the vessel LSP "NORTH POLE" - As of July 19, 2021, the readiness of the vessel was 82. To complete the construction of the platform, the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation M. The cost of the vessel increased from the initial 6.9 billion rubles to 9.0 billion rubles. The final cost of this calculation is much less than the price of even an average station in Antarctica - 12,000,000,000. From which we can conclude that there are data that significantly affect the cost of the object and it is not possible within the framework of the graduation project. In connection with the above, the calculation was performed according to the NCS data.